Prostate cancer treatment depends on the patient age, health, extent and aggressiveness of the cancer. In certain cases active surveillance where the cancer is closely watched under guidance of your urologist is the optimal initial therapy. In other cases surgery, radiation therapy, hormonal therapy or chemotherapy is required to treat the cancer.
The main form of curative treatment for kidney cancer is surgery in the form of a nephrectomy where the kidney is removed, or a partial nephrectomy where part of the kidney is removed. Chemotherapy is used in advanced cases to palliate symptoms and prolong survival. Radiation therapy is used in selected cases to reduce pain or bleeding.
Bladder cancer arises from the lining of the bladder and its treatment depends on how deeply the cancer has involved the bladder wall. Superficial bladder cancers can be treated by removal via a cystoscope (a telescope that is passed through the urethra) with the addition of BCG or local chemotherapy in more aggressive cases. When the bladder cancer invades the muscle a different form of treatment is required. In such cases a radical cystectomy can be carried out, a major abdominal operation where the bladder is removed and a urine bag or artificial bladder created. The other treatment is curative radiotherapy (sometimes with added chemotherapy). This treatment has the same cure rates as surgery and allows the patients natural bladder to remain intact as well as the natural way of urinating to continue as normal.
Testicular tumours often present as a lump in a testicle. Initial management is a radical orchidectomy, an operation to remove the affected testicle. Further treatment depends on what type of cancer is seen by the pathologist in the affected testicle, as well as the extent of the cancer.